Top 10 Most Important Medical Devices of the 20th Century (Infographic)

NEW YORK — Medical treatments moved forward by leaps and bounds during the 20th century, enabling quality of life to be greatly improved and for the quantity of that same life to be extended.

In addition to pharmaceutical developments, a significant number of new medical devices became commonplace in the treatment of a variety of health conditions.
Drug Lawsuit Source compiled a list of 10 of the most important medical devices to have been invented during the 20th century.

Drug Lawsuit Source

Real estate Law Firm – Find out what the Right One can Do for you

There are plenty of great deals on housing available these days, but not all of them involve simple transactions. In fact, some are quite complicated, which is where an experienced real estate law firm comes in. Most people do not know their rights when dealing with home transactions, which is why no matter what your plans are, you can likely use the help of someone who has years of experience in this field. Find out what a real estate law firm can do for you.

Not every home sale or purchase is simple, and when dealing with a large amount of money, it is important to know everything possible about the transaction before it is completed. Whether you are buying or selling a house or condo, and whether it will be your primary residence or an investment, you could probably use a good attorney on your side. A lawyer will let you know what to expect from the purchasing or selling process, and can ensure that all the paperwork you need is in on time.

If you already own a home but want to refinance the mortgage, you probably have questions. A real estate law firm can likely help you get your queries answered so that you have everything you need when you approach your lender for a lower interest rate. This can make sure that you do not waste your time, and that you get the lowest rate that you are entitled to.

Some people who own investment homes encounter trouble with their renters. Whether they do not pay on time or at all, it may be necessary to get a professional involved in the matter. A reputable real estate law firm can help you get your money. If you have not yet had any problems but want to make sure you are covered in the future, a lawyer can help you draw up a contract to protect you and your property. Your attorney should also be able to let you know what your options are should your renter not cooperate with the agreement.

Buying and selling property involves a lot of money changing hands, which means there may be occasion to be taken advantage of. If you want to safeguard your property and your finances, you may need professional assistance. This way, you can make sure that you are going about your real estate transactions the right way, every time.

Do i Need A pro Bono Attorney? Do They Really Offer Free Legal Help? How do i Find A free Attorney?

It’s a fact that the average person will face 4 to 6 legal situations every year. In fact, 50% of all households have a pressing legal situation right now (and the fact that you’re reading this probably means you’ve got a legal situation). Of course, a legal situation is just being in trouble with the law, but rather a legal situation is any situation in which the advice of a competent attorney would be beneficial to your situation. It’s also a fact that the national average And while we live in a country founded upon the premise of “Equal Justice Under Law, ” for most people actually getting the legal help they need is often times a matter of choosing between legal help and eating or having a roof over one’s head. The average attorney charges around $300 per hour, usually with a retainer fee, which is an up-front fee of a certain number of hours pre-paid in advance (so 5 hours at $300 per hour would yield a $1, 500 retainer fee), with any additional time paid as it accrues. Given this, it’s no wonder why most people find it cheaper to just get ripped off rather than go to an attorney! If you are in a situation where you need or may need legal counsel, what options do you have?

Pro Bono: What It is… And What It isn’t

The term pro bono comes from the Latin pro bono publico, or “for the public good. ” The concept being that, since many people cannot afford legal help (I’ve even met lawyers who admitted that they couldn’t afford their own law firms rates! )#), legal help should be given to those who need it most (and are least able to pay for it). Most people are aware of the idea of a pro bono attorney because they’ve heard of them on television or in the movies. A “free attorney” is a powerful idea, and so the concept sticks in the mind.

In the united states, the American Bar Association (ABA) recommends attorneys give 50 hours of free service per year. However, various state and city regulations can and do amend that, some recommending as few as 20 hours. The biggest point to note is that these are not required of the attorneys, generally; and across the board, most law firms do not come close to their required hours.

The ABA does have a list of pro bono attorney groups and law firms available on their website. Most of those listed, however, are for specific cases or issue types (e. g., for legal issues dealing with the Arts or the Humanities, etc. )#). If you need an attorney for a personal issue, you may have a hard time finding an attorney in your area who specializes in the field you need and who can accept your case (assuming, of course, that you even qualify). So if you can’t find a pro bono attorney, what other options do you have?

Option 1: Legal Aid

Legal Aid is available in some form in all 50 states. It is a pro bono service (i. e., there to serve the public good), but it is not always a free service. Legal Aid attorneys are sometimes public defenders, and often paid for wholly or partially by state or local subsidies. Legal Aid sprung in part out of the necessity of needing to provide legal help for those who could not find a pro-bono attorney. Many attorneys who offer their service through Legal Aid will work on a reduced fee system, and some will work for free. However, income qualifications and issue qualifications must be met, and there is often a waiting list ranging from months to years for certain issues and in certain municipalities.

If Legal Aid isn’t an option, there is one other option which most people are unaware of but which can greatly benefit most people.

Option 2: Insurance Type Legal Services

Legal Insurance and insurance type products have been available in the united states for about 40 years, although they are common in some European nations (with as many as 80% of some nations having a plan of this type). Legal insurance and pre-paid legal service plans work much like medical insurance, with a small premium granting access to a range of various legal services, from consultation, letters and phone calls, document review, and representation in court. The benefit of legal insurance plans is that they are very affordable for most budgets, often costing less than the cost of one standard hour of attorney time for an entire years worth of coverage. These plans cannot, however, cover 100% of all legal expenses, so some legal issues might incur additional costs (generally things like bankruptcy, child custody and divorce, as well as criminal charges). Such costs are often defrayed by percentage discounts off of the hourly rate of the attorney or attorneys providing the service.

Know Which Laws Come Under California Labor Law Posters?

California employers need to post labor law posters including CA minimum wage in addition to all federal and state regulations. To ensure compliance with the labor law posters mandates, employers must display both state and federal laws in a conspicuous place at every worksite. There are a number of firms that publish all-in-one labor law posters. These kinds of posters offer economical poster compliance solutions to employers. Some poster firms even offer year-round free updates for a small additional fee.

California State Labor Law Requirements include OSHA, Payday Notice, Emergency Phone number, Time Off for Voting, Discrimination and Harassment, Whistleblowers are Protected, Access to Medical Exposure Records, Family Rights Act, Unemployment Insurance, Unemployment Insurance Benefits, Minimum Wage, Workers’ Compensation, No Smoking Policy and Paid Disability Leave.

Federal Labor Law Requirements include Equal Employment Opportunity is the Law which also includes NEW GINA in effect November 21, 2009, Federal Minimum Wage 2009, USERRA – Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act, OSHA – Job Safety & Health Protection, Employee Polygraph Protection Act, Family and Medical Leave Act, IRS Withholding Notice, Anti-Discrimination Notice and Payday Notice.

Occupational Safety and Health Protection Law (CA Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section 340) requires California employers to ensure that the workplaces are free of health or safety hazards.

Payday Notice (CA Labor Code 207) requires the employers to notify employees regarding their payday schedules.

Emergency Phone number (CA Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section 1512(e) is an essential poster that lists the emergency phone numbers required during injuries or accidents in the workplace.

Time Off to Vote Notice implies that employees are entitled with the right to take time off to vote in case they are not able to do it outside their working hours.

Discrimination and Harassment notice conveys the zero tolerance policy of California State on discrimination since discrimination at workplaces against employees or job candidates is a severe crime in California.

Whistleblower Protection (CA Labor Code 1102. 8 (a)) poster is meant to inform whistle blowers regarding their rights and protections. In case they have reasons to feel that these two areas are violated, they should contact the authorities over the phone numbers given in the notice.

Access to Medical and Exposure Records (Cal/OSHA, 3204) requires employers to enable the employees with access to medical and exposure records.

Family Rights Act Notice A & B grants employees the right to avail of up to 12 unpaid weeks under certain situations including pregnancy or when they need to attend to the medical needs of a family member reported with serious ailments impairing their ability to work. Under specific categories involving family members and military, they can avail of up to 26 unpaid weeks off.

Unemployment Insurance and Benefits requires employers to display this notice since employees must gain access to this insurance or file a complaint. They are entitled to get unemployment if they happen to get unemployed due to no fault of their own.

Minimum Wage (CA Labor Code 1183(d)) lets the employees know their rights regarding overtime and minimum wage payment rules.

Workers Compensation Law (CA Labor Code 3550 (a)) is a notice that informs the workers that they can file a claim for any injuries or illnesses that happen while they are on the job.

Protecting Your business With Commercial And Insurance Law Service providers

If you are a small business owner you need to be protected in the big business world with a law firm who knows commercial law. Your business needs protection against little business and big business and consumers who try to file lawsuits without cause and you need to know your rights in insurance law.

For all needs legally, a small business needs this protection for commercial law. The reasons are many, because as a small business you can face any amount of legal challenges and having a good law firm behind you for insurance law.

Here are several reasons for having a knowledgeable lawyer who knows commercial law.

Contract Negotiation
Making sure your insurance is the right fit for your business
Contracts with suppliers
Civil litigation from the public
Your property rights
Legal troubles often come in the form of small print on contracts. Having someone who can show you the law on these areas is part of having a business so you can run your business properly without worry in insurance law. Insurance lawyers are constantly on the go because the laws change even daily in favor of the insurance industry protecting them against the consumer and the business owner. The small business owner needs protection in insurance law.

Knowing what you are responsible for is important. You will have that extra edge because you are properly protected by a law firm who specializes in and practices commercial law.

If a supplier is supposed to deliver and goes out of business do you know what your rights are in commercial law? If a supplier doesn’t deliver what they were contracted to deliver and you are waiting on supplies to do business, are you protected against this? Does your lawyer know about commercial law?

As laws change you need to know the fine print on your insurance contracts because the insurance companies know their rights on insurance law. What about big businesses who try to run you out as a small business on your property because they want to enlarge? It happens unfortunately, but having a good lawyer can stop this when you know your commercial law.

Having a good law firm is important to protect your assets as well. Did you know that one civil suit from a consumer could run a small business into bankruptcy? With the right law firm you are protected in insurance law. This can be avoided because having this knowledge can be vital to a small business and its owner in commercial law.

Pennsylvania Auto insurance Laws – 5 Car insurance Laws in PA That you need to Know

It is important to understand the various Pennsylvania auto insurance laws. Why? Because understanding these laws may just end up keeping you safe and saving you some money! Laws regarding car insurance change greatly depending on the state you live in. Some places have very straight forward or even practically non-existent laws, while others have more complicated and detailed laws. No matter where you live it is essential to know certain laws regarding auto insurance if you own a car. The state of Pennsylvania is no exception. There are, in fact, 5 car insurance laws in PA that you need to know.

Law #1 – PA’s Minimum Requirements For Car insurance

The state of Pennsylvania mandates that you carry minimum liability limits of $15, 000 per person bodily injury, $30, 000 per accident total bodily injury and $5, 000 per accident property damage. It also requires you to carry $5, 000 in medical expenses coverage. These limits are extremely low and not satisfactory protection for most people when involved in a serious accident.

Law #2 – PA Is a No-Fault Auto insurance State – Sort of

You need to choose if you will have a limited tort or full tort option on your PA car insurance policy. Choosing full tort gives you better coverage if you are hurt in an accident. Limited tort is less expensive but it prevents you from receiving compensation for pain and suffering by limiting your right to sue the other party.

Law # 3 – There are Hefty Penalties For Not having PA Car insurance

If you are caught driving without liability car insurance in the state of Pennsylvania, you will get a 90-day suspension of your license and several fines and fees.

Law # 4 – Pennsylvania Has an Assigned Risk Plan

In Pennsylvania, there is an assigned risk plan that ensures everyone can get auto insurance, no matter how high-risk they are. If you have been refused coverage, cancelled, or are having trouble getting coverage, you may want to check into it.

Law # 5 – You can Stack Uninsured Motorist Coverage For Extra Protection

If you have more than one vehicle on a policy, you can stack the UM coverage on them for an additional premium and get additional protection.

Compare Pennsylvania Car insurance Policies

Now that you are familiar with these 5 PA car insurance laws, you are well prepared to start shopping around for your car insurance needs. Use a free online quote tool, and you can compare top companies that are ready to offer you the coverage you need.

How Strict Are the Illinois Auto insurance Laws?

Illinois auto insurance is strict. It is mandatory for every vehicle in Illinois to be insured.

Failure to comply with this law will result in the suspension of the registration of the vehicle. Illinois auto insurance law provides for a minimum of 55 USD fine for vehicle owners without insurance (July 2009). That is driving a vehicle without the prescribed auto insurance. If you are caught driving a vehicle whose registration has been suspended for lack of auto insurance, the minimum fine is placed at 1, 000 USD. A heavy fine for offenders is expected to deter future violations in this state. This law applies to all vehicles with Illinois license plates.

Aside from the Illinois auto insurance requirements, state law also provides for specific details on insurance policies. Twenty thousand US dollars (20, 000 USD) is the minimum liability coverage that could satisfy this state law. It further provides for a forty thousand US Dollar (40, 000 USD) minimum coverage for one person in case of accident or death, and a fifteen thousand US dollar (15, 000 USD) minimum coverage for damage to property.

Upon demand, the vehicle owner should be able to produce and present proof of ownership and insurance to a law enforcer. In this case, the vehicle owner must always carry with him an insurance card that will reflect such information. The Illinois auto insurance law is enforced through a random questionnaire that is sent to pre-selected vehicle owners through a computer program owned by the state. Failure to return said insurance verification form will result to the suspension of the vehicle owner. The Illinois auto insurance law further provides for the suspension of vehicle registration if the owner of the subject vehicle has received a traffic ticket and also convicted of driving a vehicle that has no vehicle insurance. First time offenders incur vehicle registration suspension until a 100 USD fine is paid as reinstatement fee. The vehicle must be able to submit proof of vehicle insurance upon reinstatement. A second time offender will be placed on a four month vehicle registration suspension. Third time offenders are placed under court supervision.

The Illinois state law on mandatory auto insurance has been one of the milestone laws in consumer protection and vehicular safety. It professes a way for the state to enable its citizens to be ably protected in cases of accident, damage to property and even death. In compliance with this law, citizens are encouraged by insurance providers and thus it helps put up an efficient insurance system that will be both beneficial to the consumer and the service provider. Law enforcement in the state of Illinois is strict when it comes to this policy. Vehicle owners are apt to follow this.

Types of Custody – Options When you Get the child Custody

How many different types of child custody are alternative to separation or disjointed parents? The parents have available to choose but it depended on the state where they live and the particular situation of their child. There are regularly five types of custody: physical custody, legal custody, joint custody, sole custody, and bird’s nest custody.

Physical custody – For this custody type, the court will allow you to have the right to live with your child physically. The joint physical custody of the child will be allowed in some states. So you and your ex-partner can spend that equal time for the custody of your child. Good point of physical custody is, it permits you and your ex-partner able to allocate a maximum time with your child. However, this type of custody will succeed if you and your ex-partner live close together. You and your ex-partner should have honestly compromise and feasible relationship to avoid any conflict influence with your child.

Legal custody – This custody type gives you the right to choose for your child in health care, education, and religious upbringing. So it gives you the right and responsibility to determine the upbringing of your child. Many states permit parents can have the right in joint custody of their children, so the parents can decide to participate in the child benefit. Only problem with this legal custody may happen when the attitude of parents have conflicted. This contradiction could be harmful to their child.

Joint custody – Joint custody of a child may be physical, legal custody or together. This is used when both parents admit to share the decision making about the child’s supporting. In general, the joint custody will work when the parents agree to be coordinating their schedules. A court occasionally commands the parents to do it. Children of divorced parents get the benefit from joint custody because they definitely proceed involvement and contact with both parents. This type of adhesive also reduces the upbringing task with both parents. However, it can be disadvantaged because children often have to be relocated from one parent’s house to another, and this setup will be expensed.

Sole custody – As the name suggests, it gives parents the custodial rights to only one while the other has limited the visitation. This determination is used if the child may be injured in one parent’s home. For all types of custody, sole custody is the least disturbance to the child. Due to the very limited interaction with one of parent to child, so this custody type may be a conflict with parents.

Bird’s nest custody – With this type of custody, the child still lives at family home while the parents swap moving in and out. It is not disruptive for the child but this arrangement can be problem for parents, especially in decision making. This will work if the parents live in other places outside during off days.

No matter whom you are, if you are involved in a child custody dispute (or might be involved in one in the future) you know that the most of custody cases are longstanding, complex and bitter.

Child custody Laws – Things You need to know When Filing For Custody

Divorcing parents need to know the child custody laws. These are the laws that govern the outcome of their custody case which directly affects the time they spend with their children. Even though child custody laws vary from state to state, there are general ground rules that are applicable everywhere. Here are some laws you need to know when you are filing for child custody.

Until a custody order is established, both parents have equal claim under the law to the children. This is important for you to know because some parents think that the court will automatically give them custody because they are the mother or father. If you and the child’s other parent agree on a custody and visitation schedule, then this isn’t a big deal. Courts generally just accept any agreement that both parents submit. However, if you and your child’s other parent do not agree you need to be prepared to make your case to the court about why your custody agreement should be accepted. You will need to do this by providing the schedule that you would like adopted, and also submitting documents that show your plan is in the best interest of the child.

Child custody laws revolve around the principle that the court always wants to do what is in the best interest of the child. This is the rule in every state. So, when you’re filing for child custody, you need to make sure that you don’t do anything that looks like you are acting in a way that isn’t in the child’s best interest. This means that you need to work with the child’s other parent about visitation until you have a custody order. And, you need to communicate with the child’s other parent about what you are doing with the child. Do not take the child out of the state. Most states issues orders at the start of the custody case that says the parent cannot take the child out of state without written permission of the other parent and of the court. If you must leave the state with the child, get that written permission. If you don’t, the child’s other parent can accuse you of leaving with the child and kidnapping.

Unless there is abuse in a family situation, parents always have rights to visitation. Keep this in mind as you file your custody schedule and plan. The child’s other parent has the right to see the child, so schedule in fair visitation. And, you have the right to see your child, so don’t let your former spouse tell you otherwise.

These are some of the basic laws that you need to know while you are filing for child custody. You also want to do more research and find out the laws that are particular to your state. If you are well informed and know the laws, then you will be better prepared to get the outcome of your custody case that you want.

Child custody Order

Filing for divorce can be an overwhelming process. And, that process gets even more complicated if there are children involved. Filling out all of the paperwork and navigating all of the child custody issues can be confusing. It doesn’t help that a divorcing parent is suddenly expected to know the ins and outs of mediation, visitation, custody agreements, custody court, child custody laws, and… the list could go on forever. Many people are familiar with these terms–but they’ve never really had occasion to fully investigate them. This article gives an in depth explanation about one important child custody term: child custody order.

The child custody order is also known as the child visitation order or just the custody order. This is the order that a judge makes when the court accepts a child custody agreement and makes it a legal document. The agreement then becomes an order and it is legally binding–so both parents must abide by it. If either parent wants to make a change to the order, they must do so through the court. This is often called making a custody petition order or petitioning the custody order. A parent fills out the proper paperwork and then goes back to court to try to get the terms of the agreement revised.

A custody order can come about a few different ways. If both parents are able to work together and agree on a custody and visitation agreement then they merely show up at court and the judge will generally just accept their plan. If parents can’t agree, the court will usually have them try mediation. They will try to work something out in mediation and then present that to the judge and the court to make the agreement into the order. If that doesn’t work, then both parents present their custody case to the judge. The judge will make the decisions about the custody agreement and then that will be approved as an order. The judge tries to make the order in the best interest of the child.

So, basically, a child custody order is a custody agreement that is accepted as a court order. It defines the legal custody arrangement and gives legal custody to either parent. If either parent does not follow the order, he/she can be held in contempt of court. This means that if a custodial parent does not allow visitation as specified in the order, the non custodial parent can take the custodial parent to court. Or, if a parent doesn’t follow a stipulation contained in the agreement the other parent can take them to court.

Child custody orders are important in a custody case because it firmly lays down what is accepted in the child custody agreement. This way both parents are bound to the agreement and must follow it. The custody order adds closure and finalizes the custody case.